Despite progress in cardiovascular research, cardiac pathology continues to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Stem cell-based therapy has been recognized as an innovative strategy for the repair, regeneration and functional recovery of the myocardium, hence, once the animal research stage has been overcome, most clinical trials aimed at evaluating the safety and effectiveness of regenerative medicine in cardiovascular diseases have focused on angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and chronic cardiomyopathy. Although the current evidence of benefit is not conclusive, the evidence in favor of favorable results is growing.
In some cases, stem cell therapy can provide an effective treatment or alternative for diseases or disorders for which there is no effective treatment. Because these cells are capable of dividing into a wide range of lineages and tissues, they can be used to treat various diseases by repairing, replacing, and regenerating tissues.
It is unclear how umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells act on the heart, but previous studies have shown that they possess an anti-apoptotic effect. The induced cardiomyocytes can form discs interspersed with myocytes from the host cells, creating a functional syncytium that will help contract the heart. Mesenchymal stem cells can improve cardiac function and reduce damage caused by cardiovascular disease, since they stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms, the regulation of the immune response, tissue perfusion and the proliferation of the resident heart rate, thereby improving cardiac function and reducing damage severity.
This syndrome, characterized by persistent angina despite standard medical treatment, is often not revascularized due to diffuse coronary lesions or severe comorbidities.
In 2017, a review included 13 clinical studies, with 1061 patients and 12 months of follow-up on average, indicating cell therapy has emerged as a tool for managing these patients. Although the available data are inconclusive, the authors conclude that stem cell-based therapy could be a viable addition to conventional treatment options for refractory angina, given the paucity of therapeutic alternatives.
There was a reduction in mortality at two years after a meta-analysis in 2018, involving 304 patients, showed improved exercise tolerance and reduced angina attack frequency at three, six and 12 months. An additional meta-analysis published in March 2019, involving 526 patients monitored for 14 months, showed that patients treated with stem cells had fewer serious adverse effects, fewer deaths, fewer angina attacks, and fewer antianginal medications than those treated with conventional management.
A third meta-analysis from 2019, with 269 patients and 15 months of follow-up on average, reports the following results: decreased all-cause mortality, decreased frequency of angina and increased exercise time, with no increase in adverse reactions.
Cardiomyopathy (ischemic and non-ischemic)
Despite optimal medical and surgical management, many patients with heart failure undergo long-term myocardial remodeling that does not allow them to restore their ventricular function. This is because current treatment protocols cannot reverse the loss of cardiomyocytes due to cardiomyopathy. Since inflammatory responses continue over time as a central mechanism in the development of heart failure, it was of interest to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and immunomodulatory properties of stem cells in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy.
In a review of five clinical studies published between 2017 and 2018, including 605 patients, the authors conclude that cell therapy is safe, causes immunomodulatory effects, improves functional capacity, and adds clinical benefits to standard therapies. According to them, the results are promising, and further evidence strengthening is recommended.
Based on a meta-analysis published in May 2019, involving 20 investigations and 1418 patients evaluated for an average of 21 months, stem cells improved cardiac function indicators (LVEF and LVESV), walking distance, functional classification of heart failure, quality of life, and mortality as compared to controls. Hospitalizations and serious adverse events were not different from those in the control group.
In a recent review of 9 studies involving 612 patients with heart failure, improvement was found in clinical and paraclinical parameters, evaluated on average for 9 months. According to the authors, stem cells are an effective therapy for the treatment of heart failure, improving patient prognosis and ability to exercise.
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
The application of stem cells was associated with a significant increase in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and other variables indicative of improved ventricular function and modification of remodeling in patients with AMI receiving timely percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and conventional medication in different studies. Even coronary artery bypass grafting with stem cells offers greater benefits. A number of studies have also shown that intravenous administration could be a more efficient and effective method of treating the heart or coronary arteries than direct application, with logistic, safety, and cost advantages.
Stem cell therapy is evidenced to be a safe way to treat cardiovascular diseases, as it shows an anti-apoptotic effect, reduction of lesion size, improvement of cardiac function through regulation of the immune response, adequate tissue perfusion and activation of growth factors.
We still need to explore a lot of ground, in terms of these and other conditions. You can learn more about regenerative medicine and stem cells by enrolling in our international certification program at www.issca.us
Atherosclerosis is the most common form of arterial occlusive disease in adults. About 15 percent of adults over 55 years of age suffer from critical ischemia, the most severe form of this disease.
Due to the gradual aging of the population and the growing number of people in their third age group, a number of studies have been conducted in order to improve the prognosis of atherosclerosis obliterans and to find alternatives to the mutilation of the extremities. As a general rule, chronic ischemia of the lower limbs should be treated to alleviate symptoms, particularly pain, prevent disease progression, and reduce the rate of amputations. In most patients with critical ischemia, the main goal is to preserve the affected limb.
The development of regenerative medicine is closely linked to the development of new knowledge about embryonic and adult stem cells, as well as the regenerative and therapeutic potential of stem cell therapy. The use of adult stem cells in the treatment of peripheral artery diseases has been demonstrated as a therapeutic agent for inducing angiogenesis. Recent preclinical studies as well as the pioneering clinical studies indicate that bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MBMCs) can enhance tissue vascularization in ischemic limbs, with results similar to those obtained with peripheral blood stem cells supply.
Cuba presented the first studies carried out in 2004 at the Institute of Hematology of the “Enrique Cabrera” hospital in Havana City, which achieved encouraging clinical results and had very few adverse effects in recent years.
A progressive rise in the accumulated experience with stem cells was also observed in Pinar del Rio in 2005, as the first 10 cases were carried out. The rising ease of obtaining this type of cell has made research and applications with these cells advance rapidly with great expectations in terms of clinical application.
A study published by Dia-Diaz, et al. in the Journal of Medical Sciences of Pinar del Rio examined 296 patients with grade IV atherosclerosis obliterans between 2009 and 2019. During the study, autologous stem cells were injected intramuscularly from peripheral blood. Within four weeks, pain relief was observed, as well as an increase in the pain-free claudication distance. Angiography after treatment revealed collateral vessel formation. The limb was saved in 201 patients (68%), while 95 cases (32%) presented amputation criteria. Complications were not reported following the procedure.
The study demonstrated the effectiveness of the implantation of autologous stem cells obtained from peripheral blood, as well as the favorable evolution of patients, clinical improvement of rest pain, walking distance without claudication and ankle-brachial pressure index.
We still need to explore a lot of ground, in terms of these and other conditions. You can learn more about regenerative medicine and stem cells by enrolling in our international certification program at www.issca.us
In recent years, MSCs have been introduced as respectable candidates for regenerative medicine due to their pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, and immunomodulatory attributes. A variety of human tissues can be used as a source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), ranging from bone marrow (BM) to umbilical cord (UC). These cells are typically multipotent and can differentiate into a variety of cell types. MSCs have been studied extensively for potential applications in cardiomyopathy, neurodegenerative disorders, spinal cord injuries (SCI), kidney injuries, liver injuries, lung injuries, and even cancer. According to current research, MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) contribute to MSC-exerted therapeutic benefits.
As defined by the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV), EVs are lipid bilayer particles secreted by cells that do not replicate. EVs can be categorised into three subclasses based on size and biogenesis procedures: surrounding exosomes (50-150 nm), microvesicles (MVs) (100-1000 nm), and apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs) (500-5000 nm). In order for exosomes to be produced, multiple steps must occur; endosomes must be created from the plasma membrane, intraluminal vesicles must be formed within multivesicular bodies by inward budding, the MVB must merge with the plasma membrane, and finally the internal vesicles must be released.
By transmitting their molecules, such as proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA), and microRNAs (miRNAs), MSC exosomes stimulate phenotypic changes and subsequently modify regenerative programs of target organs. A number of mechanisms are involved in phenotypic alterations, including prevention of apoptosis, cell proliferation, immunomodulatory reactions, attenuation of oxidative stress, and improving oxygen supply to recipient cells. By supporting mitochondrial transfer, MSC-exosomes can suppress inflammatory cytokine production and induce phenotype 2 alveolar macrophages (M2), leading to acute lung injury (ALI) rescue. It has been demonstrated that the transmission of miRNAs from MSC-exosomes to recipient cells is responsible for the restoration of damaged kidneys, hearts, livers, and brains
Various cells continuously form and secrete exosomes, including lymphocytes, platelets, mast cells, intestinal epithelium, dendritic cells, neoplastic cell lines, microglia, neurons, and MSCs. Studies have shown that exosomes play an important role in cell-to-cell communication as well as several physiological and pathological processes. Despite their inherent biological activities, exosomes have recently been introduced as encouraging drug carriers because of their small size, high biocompatibility, and ability to hold different therapeutic ingredients, including proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules. There have been reports showing the usefulness of MSCs-exosomes for treating a variety of ailments, such as lung, kidney, liver, neurodegenerative, cardiac, and musculoskeletal diseases, as well as skin wounds in vivo.
As well as their remarkable therapeutic effects, MSC-EVs derived from diverse sources also possess a variety of physiological functions that may affect their therapeutic application. In a wide range of human disorders, MSC-exosomes are considered an effective alternative to whole-cell therapy because of their low immunogenicity and improved safety profile. Although MSC-exosome applications still face various challenges, their benefits and capabilities are attracting increasing interest.
To learn more about stem cells, exosomes and keep up to date with all the information about regenerative medicine and its advances, sign up for our international certification in regenerative medicine at www.issca.us
Osteoarthritis is a rheumatic pathology that damages the articular cartilage. By joining two bones through the joint capsule, the joints are able to move, providing us with functional autonomy. An inner fluid called synovial fluid is usually found within joints, which is produced by the synovial membrane. Articular cartilage covers the ends of the bones that form the joint. As a result of damage to this articular cartilage, pain, stiffness, and functional impairment occur. Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disorder, usually beginning between the ages of 40 and 50, affecting to some degree almost everyone over the age of 80. Typically, osteoarthritis affects the spine, shoulders, fingers, hips, knees, and toe joints.
Stem cell therapies have the potential to treat a broad spectrum of diseases. Whether it’s rhizarthrosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, spinal cord injuries, or heart disease. By utilizing stem cells, regenerative medicine is capable of repairing tissues in affected areas. The main difference between lipo gem therapy and other treatments for osteoarthritis is that lipogem therapy regenerates cartilage, avoids surgery and its sequelae, and improves the quality of life for patients.
The potential for medical treatments with stem cells and their by-products is currently very high. In the field of sports medicine and traumatology, one of the most outstanding advances has been made for the first time in decades recently: Spanish scientists have achieved a degree of tendon regeneration in 100% of injured patients, resulting in a decrease in pain and a return to sport within two months, and just six months after the trial was completed.
A research performed by the Institute of Regenerative Tissue Therapy (ITRT), published by the prestigious American Journal of Sports Medicine. Demonstrates how this therapy regenerates chronic lesions in the patellar tendon and opens up a new therapeutic option for this tissue, which was considered impossible to regenerate.
In most patients, fat tissue can be harvested minimally invasively (under local or general anesthesia), providing a highly viable MSC population regardless of donor age. Similar to MSCs derived from other tissues, adipose tissue-derived MSCs have regenerative potential. As osteoarthritis is a very common joint disease, and knee osteoarthritis is the most common form, it is necessary to review scientific literature on osteoarthritis treatments with stem cells, like lipogems.
Lipogems therapy is a novel procedure that enhances the body’s natural ability to heal itself through the innovative power of science and biotechnology. The Lipogems method involves injecting mesenchymal stem cells into the joints. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells have enormous regenerative potential. They also have a regenerative capacity independent of their age. Even older individuals can benefit from this procedure.
Injection of mesenchymal stem cells into the knee, particularly in the early stages of osteoarthritis, can stop the process of inflammation and degeneration, especially in the less advanced stages of the disease. In addition to preventing progressive physical deterioration of the articular cartilage, this treatment contributes significantly to a patient’s well-being and prevents the installation of knee prostheses.
Patellar tendinopathy, physiotherapeutic treatment and stem cell therapy
Injuries to the patellar tendon that connects the kneecap to the tibia are known as patellar tendinopathy or patellar tendinitis. The patellar tendon works with the muscles in the front of the thigh to extend the knee so you can kick, run and jump. Athletes who perform frequent jumping in their sports, such as basketball and volleyball, are most likely to suffer from patellar tendonitis. However, people who don’t engage in jumping sports may develop patellar tendonitis. Patients with patellar tendinitis usually begin treatment with physical therapy to stretch and strengthen their knee muscles.
Strength training with eccentric resistance is one of the most common treatments for tendinopathies. Alternatively, it has been demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can regenerate injured patellar tendons. Within six months of treatment, it has been observed that the structure of this tissue – which is always difficult to treat – is restored, reaching a regeneration of 40% in all injured persons, with a gradual improvement that eventually becomes complete.
It has been found that traditional management methods, including isometric or eccentric exercises, shock wave therapy, and even surgery, are not effective. As part of a rehabilitation program in chronic patellar tendinopathy, autologous expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) or leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma (Lp-PRP) may be effective in reducing pain and improving activity levels. Traditional management, which includes isometric or eccentric exercises, shock wave therapy, and even surgery, has limited success. A combination of autologous expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and leukocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma (Lp-PRP) and rehabilitation may reduce pain and improve activity levels in active participants with chronic patellar tendinopathy.
To learn more about stem cells, cellular therapies and keep up to date with all the information about regenerative medicine and its advances, sign up for our international certification in regenerative medicine at www.issca.us
Stem cell therapy is a form of regenerative medicine designed to repair damaged cells within the body by reducing inflammation and modulating the immune system. This phenomenon makes stem cell therapy a viable treatment option for a variety of medical conditions.
What is stem cell therapy?
The term stem cell therapy refers to any treatment involving the use of viable human stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adult stem cells. By being able to differentiate into the specific cell types necessary for repairing diseased tissues, stem cells are the ideal solution for tissue and organ transplantation.
As stem cell-based therapies are complex, researchers often seek stable, safe, and readily available sources of stem cells that can differentiate into multiple lineages. As such, choosing stem cells with clinical applications in mind is of the utmost importance
The hierarchy of stem cells
In general, stem cells fall into three categories. In addition to self-renewal, all three share a unique ability to differentiate. However, stem cells do not exist in a homogeneous form, but rather in a developmental hierarchy. Among all stem cells, totipotent cells are the most basic and least developed. These cells are capable of developing into a complete embryo while forming the extraembryonic tissue at the same time. During the fertilization of the ovum, this unique property begins and ends when the embryo reaches the stage of four to eight cells.
As the cell divides further, it loses its totipotency property and becomes a pluripotent cell, capable of dividing into each of the three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). These cells are referred to as “embryonic stem cells” and are isolated from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst after the embryo is destroyed.
The property of pluripotency is lost with successive divisions, resulting in a more limited differentiation capability in which the cells can only differentiate into limited types of cells related to their origins. “Adult stem cells” have this property, which helps maintain homeostasis throughout the organism’s lifespan. It is known that adult stem cells are present in most specialized tissue types of the body in a metabolically quiescent state, including bone marrow and oral and dental tissue.
According to many authors, adult stem cells are the gold standard for stem cell-based therapies. A number of trials involving adult stem cells have shown promising results, especially in the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells.
Stem cell research for treating disease
In 2006, Shinya Yamanka achieved a scientific breakthrough in stem cell research by generating cells with the same properties as embryonic stem cells. In fully differentiated somatic cells, namely fibroblasts, four transcription factors were transiently over-expressed, including OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC. As a result of the discovery of these cells, stem cell research has been transformed ever since. Similar to embryonic stem cells, these cells are capable of dividing into any of the germ layers. As a result of the development of iPSC technology, disease identification and treatment have become more innovative. IPSCs are therefore promising as a source of pluripotent derived patient-matched cells that can be used for autologous transplants because they can be generated from the patient’s own cells.
It is believed that stem cells, due to their unique capacity to regenerate, may hold new potential for treating diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Despite this, there remains much work to be done in the laboratory and clinic to determine how these cells can be used in regenerative or reparative medicine to treat diseases.
Studies of stem cells in the laboratory allow scientists to gain a better understanding of the cells’ essential properties as well as what makes them different from specialized cell types. Researchers are already using stem cells to test new drugs and develop model systems for studying normal development and identifying the causes of birth defects in the laboratory.
The study of stem cells continues to advance our understanding of the development of an organism from a single cell and of how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Research on stem cells is one of the most fascinating areas of contemporary biology, but, as with many fields of science that expand rapidly, it raises as many questions as it answers.
To learn more about stem cells, cellular therapies and new medical protocols using exosomes sign up for our international certification in regenerative medicine at www.issca.us
Exosomes are potent microvesicles released by adult mesenchymal stem cells. They have the ability to help restore cells in the body by improving cell to cell communication.
Exosomes are not cells, and they are smaller than cells. When compared to adult stem cells, exosomes have much more growth factors which give them a better clinical and aesthetic potential than stem cells.
It’s a cell-free cell therapy, this makes it safer compared to other cellular therapy, because there’s no risk of rejection in graft Vs host.
Unlike some other cellular therapies, exosomes do not produce host graft reactions, because they do not carry HLA genetic information and are not cells but extracts of the cells (released by cells).
Exosomes have a superior regenerative capacity, because they are obtained from newborn umbilical cord tissue mesenchymal cells, which means they have not been exposed to any contaminating or toxic agent because our cells are as healthy as our body.
Exosomes improve the signaling between cells, thereby making them useful to revitalize, rejuvenate, restore, and cause anti-inflammatory effects in the body.
When compared to autologous adult stem cells, exosomes have much more healthy growth factors which gives them a better clinical and aesthetic potential than stem cells.
Exosomes are less complicated products to transport because the cells used in cellular therapy must be applied to the patient very quickly because they are live cells. In the laboratory, once they are thawed the doctors have limited time to apply them. However, with exosomes, they last longer, because as they are proteins they do not denature and can last for longer periods.
Exosomes is a superior product to autologous treatments because they do not require a surgical procedure, they come in a vial that can be injected directly, significantly reducing the risk and complications of a surgical procedure.
It is a superior product to autologous stem cell therapy because the patient’s cells have the same age and the same quality. For example, if a patient is a smoker and intoxicated, obviously the health of his cells is not the best. That is why the most indicated product is a donor product that is pure and free of toxins.
Mesenchymal cell-derived exosomes are preferably used in regenerative medicine. These cells are excellent regenerative cells due to their multipotent nature, therefore MSCs derived exosomes are superior to other exosomes products.
The Cellgenic lyophilized exosomes are derived from mesenchymal cells, which makes it superior to other exosome products, because mesenchymal cells have superior and excellent regenerative capacity.
This is why exosome therapy, especially Cellgenic lyophilized exosomes should be a doctor’s first choice.
In recent years, the application of exosomes in regenerative medicine has been growing. Also, many more potential applications of exosomes in regenerative medicine are still being studied.
In this article, you’ll learn the functions of exosomes and up-to-date applications of exosomes in regenerative medicine.
What are exosomes?
Exosomes are tiny vesicles that play a crucial role in cell to cell communication. Every cell in our body produces exosomes, to give information to the neighboring cells or long-distance cells, to change their behavior or to simply share information.
They transfer genetic information, proteins, and receptors, and they are capable of changing the behavior of one cell to the other. They have the ability to increase cell replication and other substances crucial for tissue regeneration.
Functions of exosomes
The major function of exosomes is to improve intercellular communication by releasing effectors and signaling molecules between cells.
Every cell in our body produces exosomes, to give information to the neighboring cells, or long distance cells, to change their behavior or to simply share information.
They transfer genetic information, proteins, and receptors, and are capable of changing the behavior of one cell to the other. They can increase cell replication and other substances crucial for tissue regeneration.
Exosomes affect all aspects of cell biology and are useful for improving intercellular communication.
Various applications of exosomes in regenerative medicine.
Exosomes have various clinical applications due to their high potency, reduced immunogenicity, and ability to cross physiological barriers such as the blood-brain barrier.
In regenerative medicine, exosomes can be used in a point of care environment for a lot of aesthetic and therapeutic purposes.
The Use of Exosomes in Hair therapy
Exosomes can be used in the early stages of hair loss to re-grow and regenerate hair.
The good thing about using exosomes for hair loss is that they can be used in both men and women.
Exosomes can help stimulate hair growth and prevent hair loss. Clinical results have also shown the efficacy of exosomes in alopecia areata.
Exosomes from follicular stem cells are said to inhibit hair loss and promote hair growth.
In the earlier stages of hair loss, hair can be regrown and regenerated in men and women by administering exosomes and growth factors.
After the first round of exosome therapy, noticeable change can be seen in 2 or 3 months but the most significant changes start from 6 to 12 months.
The Use of Exosomes in Skin-Regeneration
There are so many research and clinical trials surrounding the application of exosomes in skin treatment.
The benefits of exosome therapy in skin regeneration because of their ability to directly stimulate target cells, non-immune rejection and high stability.
These are some of the abilities of exosomes in skin regeneration:
- Regulation of inflammation
- Synthesis of collagen
- Angiogenic effect
The Anti-aging effect of exosomes
Exosomes can be used to restore aging tissues of the body due to their outstanding regenerative ability.
Signs of aging manifest due to the skin’s inability to regenerate itself, exosomes can help to maintain the skin’s elasticity and strength.
Exosome therapy is changing the approach to anti-aging treatment. The rejuvenation capability of exosomes is a great way to make your patients feel young again.
It revitalizes senescent cells by repairing damage due to aging.
With exosomes, you are improving longevity by reversing the cells that are dying due to aging.
Exosomes in Pain management
Exosome therapy can be used to relieve pain by subduing pain signals, reducing inflammation and repairing damaged tissues.
The application of Exosome in inflammatory conditions.
Exosomes can decrease inflammation, regenerate cells and modulate the immune system.
Osteoarthritis: MSC-derived exosomes can reduce the joint inflammation in osteoarthritis and also stimulates cartilage regeneration and the repair of damaged tissues.
Tendinitis: Tendinitis is the inflammation of tendons. Exosomes can reduce the inflammation associated with tendinitis and repair torn tendons and muscles.
Due to the potency of exosomes and its paracrine effect, the potential capabilities of exosomes are still being discovered and studied.
At Cellgenic, we prepare easy to transport and administer Lyophilized exosomes, suitable for use in regenerative medicine.
Exosome therapy is the new buzz in the regenerative medicine industry because of how it can repair and regenerate your cells and tissues.
Exosome therapy is safer compared to other cellular therapy because it’s a cell-free therapy with no risk of rejection.
Exosome therapy will be beneficial to you if you’re dealing with conditions such as sport injuries, tissue regeneration, hair loss, erectile dysfunction, chronic pain and so many other applications .
In this article, you’ll be learning the cost of exosome therapy and how you can benefit from exosome therapy.
How the cost of exosome therapy is determined
All cells produce exosomes, which are microvesicles that contain biochemical and genetic information.
Hence, the cost of an exosome product (used in exosome therapy) will depend on what type of cell line (raw tissue source) used to extract the exosomes.
The first factor to determine the cost of an exosome product depends on the quality of the tissue source.
The most commonly used tissue types are cord blood, amniotic fluid and mesenchymal cell cultures.
Exosomes derived from mesenchymal cell cultures are the most difficult to obtain but offer the greatest therapeutic potential.
How much does exosome therapy cost?
The average cost of exosome therapy is $4,900, but the price can be anything from $3,500 – $6,500.
It’s also important to note that the price depends on your specific needs and your treatment plan, as decided by the doctor.
The doctor will schedule a consultation with you to determine your personalized treatment plan.
The exosome therapy can either be given as an IV infusion or as localized injections, depending on the purpose of the therapy.
Exosomes are very useful to revitalize, rejuvenate, restore, and reduce inflammations in the body.
Here are some ways you can benefit from exosome therapy
Hair loss therapy: If you’re in the early stages of hair loss, with exosome therapy you can regenerate your hair whether you’re a man or woman. After exosome therapy, you’ll start seeing new hair growth in as little as two to three months with very significant results showing 6 months or 1 year later.
Chronic pain: In case you’re experiencing chronic pain due to degenerative conditions such as arthritis, exosomes can help to subdue the pain by regenerating the cells and helping the body work better.
Degenerative conditions: If you’re struggling with degenerative medical conditions such as osteoarthritis and musculoskeletal injuries, exosome therapy can help your body repair the damage done to your cells by these conditions, prevent them from getting better, and help you to feel better.
Skin therapy: exosome therapy can reduce inflammation in the skin by improving the strength and elasticity of the skin.
Anti-aging: if you would like to retain your youthful glow, exosome therapy can make you feel young again by rejuvenating your skin due to its ability to reverse the cells dying due to aging.
Where can you get exosome therapy?
Cellular hope institutes provide exosome therapy for patients looking for better outcomes for various conditions.
The exosomes used at Cellular Hope Institute are obtained from umbilical cord tissue that is discarded after a new birth , which means these Exosomes have not been exposed to any contaminating or toxic agent because our cells are as healthy as our body. This gives it a higher capacity to regenerate your cells and tissues.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are the most commonly used cells in stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine, due to their high and multi-potency. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different tissues in the body.
In this article, you’ll be learning about culture-expanded MSCs, how MSCs can be expanded, The potency of MSCs and the type of cells they can differentiate into.
What are culture expanded Mesenchymal Stem cells?
Mesenchymal stem cells are high potent cells used for cellular therapy and isolated from different parts of the body. Mesenchymal stem cells can be used to improve the patient outcome in diseases and conditions such as autoimmune diseases, degenerative diseases, nerve damage, diabetes mellitus, bone problems etc.
For every patient, millions of mesenchymal stem cells are needed and the exact amount varies according to disease, route of administration, administration frequency, weight, and age of patient.
Mesenchymal stem cells are expanded in a culture media, on a large scale in order to obtain the required quantity of cells needed for cellular therapy.
Culture expanded MSCs: How does it work?
Expanding Mesenchymal stem cells in a media involves step by step process of isolation and expansion.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolation
Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from different tissues in the human body such as adipose tissues, dental pulp, human bone marrow, umbilical cord tissue, umbilical cord blood, peripheral blood and synovium.
Mesenchymal stem cells are expanded in culture to increase their yield and amplify their desired functions and potency.
Although the population of Mesenchymal Stem Cells obtained will vary from donor to donor, here are some steps to follow:
· Acquire fresh tissue extracts in strictly aseptic conditions, to maintain purity.
· To remove any cell clusters, you have to filter the cell suspension with a 70-mm filter mesh
· Use a centrifuge to roll the cells for about 5 minutes at 500g
· Suspend the cells again the cells to measure the cell viability and yield using Trypan blue exclusion
· Use in T75 culture dishes to culture the cells in 10 mL of complete MSC medium at a density of 25 × 106 cells/mL. You can then go on to Incubate the plates at 37 °C with 5% CO2 in a humidified chamber without any interruption.
· When it’s past 3 h, remove the non-adherent cells that accumulate on the surface of the dish by changing the medium and replacing it with 10 mL fresh complete medium.
· After an additional 8 h of culture, add 10ml fresh complete medium as a replacement for the existing medium. You’ll have to repeat this step every 8 h for up to 72 h of initial culture.
· Cells can be frozen in MSC growth media plus 10% DMSO (D2650) at a density of 2X106 cells/vial.
Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a culture media
Culture expanded mesenchymal cells undergo various stages from the preparation of the culture plate, thawing of Mesenchymal stem cells, and the actual expansion of Mesenchymal stem cells.
The reason behind the cultural expansion of Mesenchymal stem cells is to get them to differentiate into other cell types such as osteoblast, adipocyte, and mesenchymal stromal cells.
In preparation, to expand MSCs in a culture media, you need a culture ware. You can get one plastic or glassware plate and coat it with a sufficient amount of 0.1% gelatin. Don’t forget to aspirate the gelatin solution from the coated plate or flask before you use it.
The next step involves the thawing of the Mesenchymal stem cells, and here are a few steps for you to follow:
After the recommended culture medium and coated culture ware is ready and on standby, remove the vial of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from liquid nitrogen and incubate in a 37C water bath and pay close attention to it, until all the cells are completely thawed. The extent of completely thawed frozen cells and how fast, are what determines the cell viability.
Once the cells have thawed completely, take steps to avoid contamination by disinfecting the walls with 70% ethanol, before you proceed to the next step.
Place the cells in a hood, and carefully transfer the cells to a sterile tube with a pipette (1 or 2ml pipette), Do this in such a way to prevent bubbles.
Then, add drops of Mesenchymal Stem cell expansion medium that have been pre-warmed to 37C to the tube containing the Mesenchymal stem cells.
Be careful to take your time when adding the medium to avoid osmotic shock which could lead to decreased viability.
Proceed to mix the suspension slowly by pipetting up and down two times while avoiding any bubbles.
Place the tube in a centrifuge and centrifuge the tube at 300 x g for 2-3 minutes to roll the cells, and you should not vortex the cells.
After this, then decant as much of the supernatant as possible. These steps are necessary to remove residual cryopreservative (DMSO).
Suspend the cells in a total volume of 10 mL of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expansion Medium again or any alternative of choice, pre-warmed to 37 °C, containing freshly added 8 ng/mL FGF-2 (F0291).
The next step involves placing the cell suspension onto a 10-cm tissue culture plate or a T75 tissue culture flask.
Maintain the cells in a humidified incubator at 37 °C with 5% CO2.
The next day, exchange the medium with fresh Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expansion Medium (pre-warmed to 37 °C) containing 8 ng/mL FGF-2*. Replace with fresh medium containing FGF-2 every two to three days thereafter.
Isolate the cells when they are approximately 80% confluent, using Trypsin-EDTA and passaged further or frozen for later use.
Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Once the cells are actively proliferating and have reached a confluence of approximately 80% (before 100%), you should subculture the cells.
Then remove the medium from the 10-cm tissue culture plate containing the confluent layer of human mesenchymal stem cells, carefully and apply 3-5 mL of Trypsin-EDTA Solution, before proceeding to incubate in a 37 °C incubator for 3-5 minutes.
Crosscheck the culture to see if all the cells are completely detached. Then, add 5 mL Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expansion Medium to the plate.
Swirl the plate mildly to mix the cell suspension. Transfer the separated/isolated cells to a 15 mL conical tube.
Centrifuge the tube at 300 x g for 3-5 minutes to pellet the cells.
Throw the supernatant away and apply 2 mL Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expansion Medium (pre-warmed to 37 °C) containing 8 ng/mL FGF-2 to the conical tube and completely suspend the cells again. Remember not to vortex the cells.
Then, use a hemocytometer to count the number of cells.
Plate the cells at a density of 5,000-6,000 cells per cm2 into the appropriate flasks, plates, or wells in a Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expansion Medium containing 8 ng/mL FGF-2.
Cells can be frozen in MSC growth media plus 10% DMSO (D2650) at a density of 2X106 cells/vial.
Functions of Culture Expanded MSCs
Mesenchymal stem cells are required to be expanded in order for them to be used clinically for therapeutic purposes.
The culture expanded MSCs can be induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes, hepatocytes, chondrocytes, tenocytes and cardiomyocytes.
Because of its potential to differentiate into different kinds of cells in the body, it can be used to manage liver problems, heart problems, joint and bone problems etc.
Mesenchymal stem cells are also used in tissue regeneration and modulation of the immune system. They possess anti apoptotic, angiogenic, anti fibrotic, and anti-oxidative properties.
However, the quantity of MSCs isolated from body tissues is not enough for clinical and therapeutic applications.
This is why MSCs are expanded in culture to increase their yield for desired therapeutic effect.
Cellular therapy is fast becoming a standard therapy in many regenerative clinics today. Many doctors are no longer questioning the safety and effectiveness of stem cell therapy. This is because various stem cell studies are already describing the benefits of stem cells for patients who are living with chronic and autoimmune health conditions.
This article will be talking about why stem cell therapy have become a standard therapy in clinics, the paracrine effect of stem cells, and other reasons why doctors are adopting stem cells in their clinics.
Benefits of stem cell therapy
Stem cell therapy is an important innovation in medicine because of its regenerative power in the human body. Most disease states are characterized by damaged cells, tissues and organs, which is where stem cell therapy comes in. In stem cell therapy, stem cells are administered into the human body and it replaces the cells damaged by disease or health disorders.
Stem cell research has revealed two major ways of using stem cells to rebuild defective and damaged cells. One of these ways can be seen in procedures like bone marrow transplant, where stem cells are used to replace the damaged cells by engraving, and they then differentiate into the proper cell type. Another mechanism relies on the paracrine effect of stem cells. This procedure of stem cell therapy involves using stem cells isolated from a donor to stimulate the patient’s cells to repair damaged tissues.
Additionally, unlike traditional therapy, stem cells have a wide application. Stem cell therapy is used to manage various degenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, birth defects, and the research is still ongoing for so many other health conditions where stem cells have shown potential.
Also, there is currently a high demand for aesthetic medicine. Stem cell therapy is a proven alternative to other forms of cosmetology such as plastic surgery. Hence, dermatologists are turning to stem cell therapy to administer anti-aging procedures, skin rejuvenation, hair therapy, micro-needling etc.
The Paracrine effect of stem cells
The paracrine effect of stem cells is one of the most outstanding effects of stem cells. It involves using donor cells to stimulate endogenous repair by harnessing the regenerative power of the human body. It is a mechanism of tissue regeneration that has created new possibilities for managing various conditions using stem cell therapy.
The cells that trigger a paracrine response are; mesenchymal cells, umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, adipose (fat) tissue and blood cells from a donor’s bone marrow.
The paracrine effect occurs when the donor’s cells send the damaged or defective cells signals to induce self regeneration and repair by secreting some factors and proteins. One of the mechanism by which this paracrine effect is initiated, involves the secretion of cytokines and regulatory proteins by the damaged patient’s cells, these cytokines and proteins act as mediators to stimulate an immune response that attracts the donor cells, this causes the donor cells to release proteins and factors that stimulate the patient’s cells to promote cell proliferation, increase vascularization and blood flow to the areas that needs to heal, while reducing inflammation.
Moreover, research has shown that the paracrine effect of stem cells prevents damaged and diseased cells from dying. They are also therapeutically useful in autoimmune diseases and preventing transplant rejection due to the immune suppression effect they have.
Is stem cell therapy effective?
Doctors are always looking for ways to provide the best possible treatment to their patients, and that is why many clinics are embracing stem cell therapy as a standard, due to its many advantages.
Stem cell therapy is one of the most effective and safest therapy patients can receive, when compared to other existing treatment options. Stem cell therapy is used in promoting patient outcomes in a lot of disease conditions that were previously poorly treated by other alternatives.
Again, as new potentials and ways of applying stem cells are being discovered, doctors are beginning to maximize these benefits in their clinics. Some conditions that are currently treated by stem cells include autoimmune conditions, immunotherapy Car-T cells, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, neurodegenerative conditions, osteoarthritis, spinal cord injury, aesthetics/anti-aging, sports medicine, autism and multiple sclerosis.
Another reason clinics are adopting stem cell therapy as a standard therapy is because it is easy to administer. A lot of machines such as GCELL which makes the harvesting and processing of stem cells easy and fast, have made the procedures easily adaptable by doctors.
Furthermore, stem cell therapy reduces the treatment and recovery time associated with surgical procedures and other treatment options. This alone is a big factor in why stem cells are becoming a standard therapy in clinics.
Therapeutic uses of stem cells vs traditional medicine
Existing stem cell research has shown how the regenerative effect of stem cells is defining the future of medicine. The major advantage of stem cell therapy over conventional medication-based therapy is its safety. Stem cell therapy is aimed at treating the cause of the disease while traditional medicine targets the symptoms.
Another problem with traditional medical therapy is that it introduces another problem while trying to solve the existing one. As a doctor, you always run the risk of causing harm with each prescription because of various adverse effects that could lead to major organ damage of the kidney, liver etc. On the other hand, patients already know this and they are actively seeking better alternatives, this is why stem cell therapy is fast becoming a standard therapy in clinics.
Moreover, doctors will always be concerned about whether their patients are taking their medications or not. The burden of drug compliance and adherence associated with traditional medical therapy is not always easy to navigate. This is why effective treatment options like stem cell therapy have become a standard therapy in clinics. It only requires the patients having a procedure that repairs and restores damaged cells and tissues in the most natural way.
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